High Energy Density and High Power Density Thermal Energy Storage
ABSTRACT: Thermal energy storage for load smoothing can be beneficial in applications having large transient heat load compared to steady-state heat rejection. Laser weapons and high-power microwave generators are examples where TES can help. Ammoniated complex compound systems can provide heat absorption due to exothermic dissociation of the complex compound. Very high energy density and power density TES are possible, and there are no standby losses from a charged system. Gas released during dissociation can be stored or safely disposed of Phase I identified two viable options: (1) storing gas in a gas-storage reactor with a lower vapor pressure complex compound, and (2) catalytically combusting the desorbed gas. TES systems of this type are recharged by allowing ammonia to return to the TES vessel and reform the complex compound. Thousands of TES recharge cycles are possible. Heat and mass transfer processes and internal structures developed at Rocky Research ensure high reaction rates and stabilize the solid reactant. Phase II will focus on reactor optimization followed by demonstration of both of the above two options at a capacity of about 10 kW. Heat storage from a 25 & #61616;C load from laser diodes will the primary focus of Phases II efforts. BENEFIT: The primary benefit of this project will be to provide the Air Force with viable thermal management for electric lasers, especially those on air craft. However, high energy density TES can be beneficial anywhere there are transient heat loads. Besides directed energy weapons and rail guns, possible applications include high-power microwave generators, electronics and computing systems with short-term high loads such as those used in missile guidance and enemy threat tracking. As this technology sees use in military applications, spin-off to industries with large short-term heat rejection needs could occur. Quenching materials for heat treat is one such possible application.
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