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Company Information:

Name: Kyma Technologies, Inc.
Address: 8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC
Located in HUBZone: No
Woman-Owned: No
Minority-Owned: No
Phone: (919) 789-8880

Award Totals:

Program/Phase Award Amount ($) Number of Awards
SBIR Phase I $2,397,284.00 27
SBIR Phase II $7,823,287.00 10
STTR Phase I $569,955.00 7
STTR Phase II $2,999,993.00 4

Award List:

N/A

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2000 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / NAVY
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Senior Scientist
Award Amount: $69,999.00

N/A

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2000 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Mark Williams, President
Award Amount: $69,567.00

N/A

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2000 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Senior Scientist
Award Amount: $70,000.00

Large Area Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy of Gallium Nitride

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2001 / SBIR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Director of Business Deve
Award Amount: $600,000.00
Abstract:
High-performance GaN-based devices, such as microwave transistors, laser diodes and light emitting diodes have been demonstrated on sapphire and silicon carbide substrates, Gallium nitride substrates are expected to further improve the performance of thesedevices due to close lattice and thermal… More

Multiple Frequency GaN FETs on Aluminum Nitride Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2001 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Director of Bus. Dev.
Award Amount: $100,000.00
Abstract:
This program will develop high power, multiple frequency RF switches utilizing AlN substrates developed by Kyma Technologies, Inc. High-performance GaN-based devices, such as microwave transistors, have been demonstrated on sapphire and silicon carbidesubstrates; however, defects due to lattice and… More

4 Single Crystal Aluminum Nitride Substrates"

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2001 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: N.Mark Williams, Director of R&D
Award Amount: $70,000.00
Abstract:
Attempts to grow large area low defect density aluminum nitride substrates has had limited success. We propose the use of Kyma Technologies' novel growth process for production of 4

Gallium Nitride Epitaxial Growth on Aluminum Nitride Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2001 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: N.Mark Williams, Director of R&D
Award Amount: $70,000.00
Abstract:
This program will develop a process for growth of low defect density GaN epitaxial layer on aluminum nitride substrates. Utilizing a novel high rate material transfer process, thick, low defect density, free-standing AlN substrates will be fabricated byKyma Technologies. The nitride MOVPE growth… More

Gallium Nitride Wafer Preparation for Epitaxial Growth

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2002 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: N.Mark Williams, Director of R&D
Award Amount: $70,000.00
Abstract:
"Kyma Technologies has made homoepitaxial growth of GaN a reality using its 2" diameter GaN substrates. This program will develop the substrate preparation process for epitaxial growth of gallium nitride films. This will include mechanical andchemical-mechanical polishing as well as wet and dry… More

Ohmic Contacts to Bulk N-type Gallium Nitride

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2002 / STTR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Research Institution: North Carolina State University
Principal Investigator: Mark Williams, Director of R&D
Award Amount: $70,000.00
RI Contact: Matt Ronning
Abstract:
"Kyma Technologies and NCSU will collaborate to produce ohmic contacts to single crystal gallium nitride (GaN) substrates. We propose to develop metallization schemes for ohmic contacts to GaN substrates for device fabrication. This will be of the utmostimportance for producing devices with a… More

Gallium Nitride Wafer Surface Preparation for Epitaxial Growth

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2003 / SBIR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: N. Mark Williams, Director of R&D
Award Amount: $749,597.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies has produced prototype 2

Gallium-Nitride Substrates for Improved, Solid-State Lighting

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2003 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency: DOE
Principal Investigator: Mark Williams
Award Amount: $100,000.00
Abstract:
73109S03-I Gallium-nitride-based LEDs have the potential to replace incandescent lighting in many applications, due to their high-efficiency operation. ¿ This high-payoff for gallium-nitride (GaN) LEDs centers around UV-stimulated phosphors for solid-state white lighting. However, due to the lack… More

Advanced Gallium Nitride Microelectronic Devices Produced on Gallium Nitride Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2003 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Director of Business Deve
Award Amount: $70,000.00
Abstract:
This program will demonstrate high-performance GaN microelectronic devices for X-band radar applications by using novel device designs and single crystal gallium nitride substrates. FETs for power amplifiers will benefit from lower defects resulting fromgrowth on a native GaN substrate, improved… More

Manufacturng Process for Production of Doped GaN Crystals

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2003 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Director of Crystal Growt
Award Amount: $70,000.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies will use its proprietary manufacturing technique for growth of bulk GaN doped substrates. We propose to develop gallium nitride (GaN) substrates with n- and p- type dopants for device fabrication. Attempts to grow low defect densitygallium nitride (GaN) thin films on substrates… More

Advanced Manufacturing Process for Growth of Gallium Nitride Crystals

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2003 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: N. Mark Williams, Director of R&D
Award Amount: $70,000.00
Abstract:
Gallium nitride crystal growth has gained more attention as the need for a homoepitaxial substrate for GaN devices has increased. Kyma Technologies proposes to develop an advanced manufacturing process capable of growing single crystal GaN at growth ratesin excess of 1mm/hr. 50mm single crystal… More

Gallium Nitride Devices on Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride Substrates for Advanced T/R Modules

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2003 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Director of Crystal Growt
Award Amount: $70,000.00
Abstract:
Existing T/R modules are based on gallium arsenide (GaAs) transistors and power amplifiers. Current and future XBRs would benefit from improved resolution, enhanced discrimination, and increased power. Significant XBR performance enhancement can beachieved by developing T/R modules that incorporate… More

Advanced Gallium Nitride Microelectronic Devices Produced on Gallium Nitride Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2004 / SBIR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Director of Research and
Award Amount: $750,000.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies, Inc. will demonstrate high-performance gallium nitride (GaN) microelectronic devices for X-band radar applications using single crystal semi-insulating GaN substrates. FETs for power amplifiers will benefit from lower defects resulting from growth on a native GaN substrate. The… More

Advanced Manufacturing Process for Growth of Gallium Nitride Crystals

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2004 / SBIR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Mark Williams, Director of Wafering
Award Amount: $750,000.00
Abstract:
Gallium nitride substrates are now being produced by several manufacturers, however significant market penetration is being limited by high prices and low quantities. This Phase II program is aimed at addressing both of these issues by developing a growth process for the production of 1cm thick… More

Development of 4 inch Semi-Insulating Gallium Nitride Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2004 / STTR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Research Institution: Auburn University
Principal Investigator: Mark Williams, Director of GaN Wafering
Award Amount: $100,000.00
RI Contact: Minseo Park
Abstract:
High-performance GaN-based devices, such as microwave transistors, laser diodes and light emitting diodes have been demonstrated on sapphire and silicon carbide substrates. Gallium nitride substrates are expected to further improve the performance of these devices due to close lattice and thermal… More

Fabrication of GaN Schottky Diode Power Rectifiers on GaN Substrates Using Advanced Metal Contacts

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2004 / STTR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Research Institution: Auburn University
Principal Investigator: N. M. Williams, Director of GaN
Award Amount: $0.00
RI Contact: Minseo Park
Abstract:
The Phase II STTR will demonstrate the device operation of a GaN Schottky diode power rectifier. Kyma Technologies, Inc. will collaborate with investigators at Auburn University and North Carolina State University for materials growth/characterization and device fabrication/testing. The… More

Production of Large Area Semi-Insulating Gallium Nitride Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2005 / STTR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Research Institution: NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSIT
Principal Investigator: Mark Williams, Chief Operating Officer
Award Amount: $749,999.00
RI Contact: Mark Johnson
Abstract:
Ultra-high performance multi-function RF electronics are required by the United States Department of Defense to enable next generation radar and sensor networks in response to an increasingly diverse array of threats to our military and our homeland. An elegant potential solution is that of gallium… More

High Electrical Efficiency GaN FETs for Innovative Radar/RF Sensors

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2006 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Chief Technology Officer
Award Amount: $100,000.00
Abstract:
Improving efficiency and reliability of GaN-based FETs is paramount in enabling system insertion, both of which are limited by thermal effects and self heating in the devices. One factor limiting high voltage and high efficiency operation of GaN HEMTs is leakage current between the gate and drain at… More

Manufacturing Process for Semi-insulating 4" Diameter GaN Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2006 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Chief Technical Officer
Award Amount: $100,000.00
Abstract:
Large area semi-insulating GaN has the potential to impact the commercialization of many technologies such as power transistors, high frequency microwave amplifiers, and high-speed, high-power switching components. One of the limiting factors in many of these applications is the lack of… More

Materials Development in GaN for Non-polar Substrates Sliced From Bulk Crystals

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2006 / STTR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / ARMY
Research Institution: DUKE UNIV.
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser
Award Amount: $100,000.00
RI Contact: April Brown
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies will lead a team of researchers in the development and optimization of bulk GaN crystal growth processes for fabricating non-polar GaN substrates. Processes for extended growth of GaN crystals in the c-axis direction will be developed to fabricate non-polar and semi-polar… More

Development of Seeded Crystal Growth Processes for Large Area Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2007 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, CTO & VP Business Development
Award Amount: $100,000.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies will explore aspects of seeded bulk GaN crystal growth to develop manufacturing processes for large area, high quality, semi-insulating GaN substrates for RF applications. Preparation of GaN seeds and growth thereon, including surface cleaning, off-cut angle and direction, growth… More

Homoepitaxial GaN-based Devices for RF Electronics

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2007 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, CTO & VP Business Development
Award Amount: $100,000.00
Abstract:
In this Phase I proposal, Kyma Technologies will examine the epi properties and device performance of homoepitaxial GaN-based device layers grown on semi-insulating GaN substrates, targeting metrics that will help characterize performance at high frequency and correlating device performance with… More

High Electrical Efficiency GaN FETs for Innovative Radar/RF Sensors

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2007 / SBIR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, CTO & VP Business Develop
Award Amount: $1,000,000.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies proposes a research and development effort to fabricate and test GaN-based FETs on GaN and SiC substrates. AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures will be tested to identify the impact of defects on the thermal characteristics and degradation behavior in the devices in order to improve device… More

Materials Development in GaN for Non-polar Substrates Sliced From Bulk Crystals

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2007 / STTR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / ARMY
Research Institution: NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV.
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, CTO & VP Bus. Dev.
Award Amount: $749,999.00
RI Contact: Matt Ronning
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies will team with North Carolina State University to develop growth techniques using the hydride vapor phase epitaxy technique to fabricate large area non-polar GaN substrates. Using high quality non-polar seed crystals developed during the Phase I effort, the HVPE growth process will… More

Manufacturing Process for Semi-insulating 4" Diameter GaN Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2007 / SBIR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, CTO & VP Business Develop
Award Amount: $749,990.00
Abstract:
The overall objective of this Phase II effort is to implement a HVPE crystal growth tool for large diameter GaN crystals suitable for 4" diameter substrates. Using this new crystal growth platform, Kyma will optimize its design and operation to develop a manufacturing process for growing high… More

Manufacturing Process for Semi-insulating 4" Diameter GaN Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2007 / SBIR / Phase II
Agency: DOD
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, CTO & VP Business Develop
Award Amount: $749,990.00
Abstract:
The overall objective of this Phase II effort is to implement a HVPE crystal growth tool for large diameter GaN crystals suitable for 4" diameter substrates. Using this new crystal growth platform, Kyma will optimize its design and operation to develop a manufacturing process for growing high… More

Development of Seeded Crystal Growth Processes for Large Area Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride Substrates

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2008 / SBIR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, CTO & VP Business Develop
Award Amount: $999,993.00
Abstract:
In this Phase II effort, Kyma will explore aspects of seeded bulk GaN crystal growth to develop manufacturing processes for large area, high quality, semi-insulating GaN substrates for RF applications. Optimization of several aspects of the growth process will be investigated to develop a process… More

Integration of Bulk GaN with Diamond for Device-level Thermal Management Solutions

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2008 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, CTO & VP Business Development
Award Amount: $99,992.00
Abstract:
In this Phase I proposal, Kyma Technologies will perform a proof of concept demonstration of high quality bulk GaN/diamond integration for advanced thermal management of high power density GaN-based device applications. The development effort will include separation of thin GaN layers from bulk… More

Electrically-Pumped III-Nitride Intersubband lasers

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2009 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / DARPA
Principal Investigator: Tanya Paskova, Chief Scientist
Award Amount: $98,999.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies together with the two subcontractors at Princeton University and Lehigh University aim to develop III-Nitride QCL at near 1.55 m based on native GaN substrates and strain-compensation heterostructures engineering. We intent to employ new approaches, aiming to overcome the… More

Advanced Nitride Heterostructures for X-Band GaN HEMTs

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2009 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Tanya Paskova, Chief Scientist
Award Amount: $99,902.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies together with the subcontractor at Virginia Commonwealth University, aim to develop high-performance AlInN/GaN based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), operating in the X-band frequency region. We intent to employ a novel technical approach, which examines both large-scale… More

HVPE-grown InGaN Materials for Aggressive Cost Reduction of Solid State Lighting Technologies

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2009 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / DARPA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, CTO & VP Business Development
Award Amount: $98,999.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies will develop InGaN growth technologies using the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) process, and will combine this with a proven GaN epitaxial growth technology to enable aggressive cost reduction for InGaN-based devices. This approach will enable a reduction in the required MOCVD… More

GaN-based Schottky Diodes for Power Converters in X-band Radar Power Supplies

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2009 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator: Drew Hanser, Chief Technology Officer
Award Amount: $99,970.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies proposes to develop high performance GaN-based Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) using high quality native GaN substrates. The inherent properties of the native substrate and the high quality epitaxy will enable novel technology advances beyond the current GaN SBD state of the art,… More

Development of GaN Substrates for High Power and M

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2009 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator: Gregory Mulholland, Director of Engineering
Award Amount: $69,678.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies proposes to document and model commonly observed GaN defect structures in device performance simulations to determine the acceptable level of defects to yield a Schottky diode appropriate for typical 600 V market specifications. Bulk GaN substrates have the potential to enable… More

In-Situ Monitoring during HVPE for the Producibility of Semi-Insulating GaN

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2010 / STTR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Research Institution: University of Nevada at Las Vegas
Principal Investigator: Robert Metzger, Chief Engineer
Award Amount: $99,969.00
RI Contact: Rama Venkat
Abstract:
This program will utilize in-situ monitoring devices during the HVPE growth of GaN in conjunction with thermal and gas flow modeling, to establish tighter tolerances over growth variables such as substrate temperature and growth rate, which will lead to more robust, producible HVPE GaN growth… More

Electrically-Pumped III-Nitride Intersubband lasers

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2010 / SBIR / Phase II
Agency: DOD
Principal Investigator: Tania Paskova, Chief Scientist – (919) 789-8880
Award Amount: $749,975.00
Abstract:
Kyma Technologies, a leading supplier of low defect density GaN substrates, is teamed together with the three subcontractors at Princeton University, Lehigh University and Purdue University where some of the best lattice-matched quaternary (In,Ga,Al)N or ternary structures in the world have been… More

High Performance, Cost Effective, Planar Molecularly Controlled Semiconductor Resistor (MOCSER) Gas Sensors on InAs and InN

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2012 / STTR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / ARMY
Research Institution: Duke University
Principal Investigator: Bob Metzger, Chief Engineer – (919) 789-8880
Award Amount: $99,989.00
RI Contact: April Brown
Abstract:
We plan to implement a planar Molecularly Controlled Semiconductor Resistor (MOCSER) gas sensor on both InAs and InN platforms for the ppt-ppm detection of NOx and H2O. Kyma Technologies and Duke University will leverage Duke"s leading MOCSER based NOx sensor technology which uses surface… More

High Quality, Low Cost, and High Purity AlGaN Epitaxy with Reduced Surface Dislocation Density

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2012 / STTR / Phase I
Agency / Branch: DOD / ARMY
Research Institution: North Carolina State University
Principal Investigator: Kevin Udwary, Director of Engineering – (919) 789-8880
Award Amount: $99,997.00
RI Contact: Tanya Paskova
Abstract:
Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN) has broad dual use applications for power transistors, high frequency transistors, high power Schottky barrier diodes, and solar-blind detectors, as well as ultra-violet laser diodes and ultra-violet light emitting diodes. This unique material system spans the… More

Producibility of Gallium Nitride Semiconductor Materials

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2012 / STTR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / MDA
Research Institution: The Pennsylvania State University
Principal Investigator: Bob Metzger, Chief Engineer – (919) 789-8880
Award Amount: $999,995.00
RI Contact: Dave Snyder
Abstract:
The overall objective of this program is to improve the producibility of HVPE GaN through the use of in-situ monitoring during the growth process. Various in-situ monitoring devices will be used: a UV absorption technique to monitor the GaCl concentration above the growing GaN wafer; a commercial… More

Compact, Efficient, High Power Semiconductor Laser for Undersea Communication

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2012 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency: DOD
Principal Investigator: Jacob Leach, Characterization/Device E – (919) 789-8880
Award Amount: $79,995.00
Abstract:
In this proposal, we build on demonstrated expertise in Bulk GaN growth (Kyma Technologies), High Indium Mole Fraction InGaN and quaternary AlInGaN growth (NCSU- Salah Bedair), device fabrication and characterization (NCSU- John Muth), Optical Photopumping (ARMDEC- Henry Everitt) and expertise in… More

Planar, Low Switching Loss Bulk InAlN/GaN Based HEMTS for Power Conversion Applications

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2012 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency: DOD
Principal Investigator: Jacob Leach, Director of Production – (919) 789-8880
Award Amount: $80,000.00
Abstract:
In this proposal, we build on demonstrated expertise in Bulk GaN growth (Kyma Technologies), Design and simulation of Power Devices and systems (NextWatt LLC), Epitaxial Growth of High Performance HEMT heterostructures (Virginia Commonwealth University), and Fabrication of Advanced Semiconductor… More

Development of GaN Substrates for High Power and Multi-Functional Devices

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2012 / SBIR / Phase II
Agency / Branch: DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator: Gregory Mulholland, Director – (919) 789-8880
Award Amount: $723,742.00
Abstract:
Gallium nitride (GaN) substrates are a critical component in the roadmap of power efficient and high frequency electronic devices in the coming years. One major hurdle of this technology is the limited availability of large diameter, high quality substrates for large scale device fabrication. Under… More

Low Cost High Reproducibility Method for GaN Seed Production

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2013 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency: DOE
Principal Investigator: Edward Preble, Dr.
Award Amount: $150,000.00
Abstract:
Although several critical energy saving technologies under development today require Gallium Nitride (GaN) based semiconductor devices, a source of high quality and inexpensive GaN wafers does not yet exist. This lack of GaN wafers adds complexity to GaN device production and makes development of… More

FLAAT Growth Technology for Low Cost Thick High Quality GaN on Thin 8 Sapphir

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2013 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency: DOE
Principal Investigator: Edward Preble, Dr.
Award Amount: $140,183.00
Abstract:
Gallium Nitrides (GaN) device market size is second only to silicon and is projected to be $50-100 billion in size as markets mature for GaN power devices, solid state lighting, and hundreds of other new applications. Even with this remarkable forecast, GaN epitaxy is still produced primarily on… More

Millimeter Thick, Periodically Oscillating Polarity GaN Grown via HVPE

Award Year / Program / Phase: 2013 / SBIR / Phase I
Agency: DOD
Principal Investigator: Edward Preble, Chief Technology Officer – (919) 789-8880
Award Amount: $80,000.00
Abstract:
Gallium Nitride (GaN) crystals have recently garnered attention as a candidate for use as a Quasi-Phase Matching (QPM) material for frequency conversion applications such as second harmonic generation (SHG) and optical parametric oscillation (OPO), due to its wide bandgap (3.4eV), high thermal… More